One of the most important telescopes in the history of astronomy, the Hubble telescope has allowed observers to peer farther into space than any previous telescope. By moving outside and above the atmosphere of the earth, the Hubble telescope has been able to observe visual data much more clearly than a terrestrial telescope, and it has been able to see much farther into the ultraviolet and infrared spectrums as well, since these spectra are largely absorbed by the earth’s atmosphere. Thus, by moving the observing platform into open space, the Hubble telescope has given a much clearer view of the universe, allowing scientists to peer even deeper into space.
The Hubble telescope is named for Edwin Hubble, the astronomer who originally determined that the universe is expanding. This discovery, one of the foundations of modern astronomy and cosmology, made Hubble an excellent choice for the honor of having this telescope named for him.
The concept for the Hubble telescope was originally the idea of Lyman Spitzer back in 1946. He clearly saw that earth-based telescopes were inherently limited in their ability to see into the heavens, since dust, clouds, and even turbulence in the atmosphere interfered with telescopes’ clarity. Which meant that the best way to get a clear image from a telescope was with a telescope that was in orbit around the earth.
After some success with the smaller Orbiting Astronomical Observatory, the plan for a large scale telescope was born. There were some fits and starts however, mostly due to budget constraints, and the project did not really take off until the 1970’s and funding was not approved until 1978. Then, with funding in place, plans were made to launch the Hubble telescope in 1983. However, due to various delays, it was not actually launched until 1990.
After a few early problems, the Hubble telescope finally started sending back clear images. And those images were well worth the effort. The Hubble telescope was able to achieve a sharpness and resolution that was unimaginable with a standard, earth-bound telescope; crisp images that not only showed new detail in known areas of space, but also peered deeper into space than ever before. And with these new images, astronomers have been able to discover new and exciting information about our universe.
However, it is not only astronomers who have been amazed at the images that the Hubble telescope has produced. In fact, the images from Hubble are delights to view all on their own. From the clearly defined galaxies, to pictures of nebulae, to the Apollo 15 landing site, Hubble has been as exciting for the public as it has been for scientists.
As the Hubble telescope ages, its future is uncertain. Corrective software has allowed earth-based telescopes to pick up much of the information previously possible only with a space-based telescope. And as NASA retools itself to follow its mandate to take a man to Mars, money that would be spent on maintenance of the Hubble is being spent elsewhere. However, before the Hubble telescope enters the atmosphere sometime in 2010, it will provide a remarkable window into the universe and all that is in it.
Your Brain – General Features
The Human Cortex
The most striking feature of the human brain is seen in the cortex. This is the folded, hemispherical structure which constitutes the bulk of the visible brain.
It is not present in reptiles.
The cortex is relatively recent. It is perhaps one hundred thousand years old and is the part of the brain most closely associated with our ability to form complex representations of the external world, to reason logically and to use language.
It is much more dominant in humans than in any other species.
Regions of the cortex control vision, our auditory senses, and voluntary movement and touch sensations. It is also crucial for long term memory.
Neurons and Networks
The central nervous system is composed of something like one hundred billion nerve cells or neurons.
Each nerve cell or neuron possesses a single axon along which it can pass electrical signals to other neurons. Incoming signals are carried by a neuron’s dendrites which form a tree-like structure around the neuron.
Neurons are about one micron (1 millionth meter) in diameter. The dendrites are perhaps ten times this in length while the axon varies from a millimetre up to one metre in length.
The signal from one neuron reaches another at the junction of axon and dendrite — the synaptic gap.
The typical voltages associated to these signals are small (tens of millivolts) and travel at about two hundred miles an hour (100 metres per second)
Typically neurons can only fire once every millisecond (one thousandth of a second)
Different patterns of electrical firing activity are associated with different brain functions.
Learning and Connections
The brain is both robust (able to function in the event of severed connections and/or dead neurons) and plastic – able to adapt to new memories and functions.
This is due to ability of the brain to form new connections between neurons. These connections take place at synapses and are
mediated by the release of neurotransmitter chemicals.
These neurotransmitters alter the effective strength of the signal which can pass between
During our early years and during any kind of learning process these connections form and change their strengths.
The power of the brain as a computational device derives from the complex network of neural pathways and the simultaneous processing capability of all the neurons.
One such immensely powerful device belongs to you.
You can personally programme this device (your brain) to deliver everything you have ever truly desired.
This Genie within you is simply waiting to be told what it is you want.
So set your Genie some exciting tasks to perform and pilot yourself to a future of positive expectation.
More and more, savvy consumers are choosing Direct TV over traditional cable. In fact, Direct TV is now the leading cable television provider in the United States and the largest satellite TV company in the entire world. Why are so many people choosing Direct TV over regular cable television For starters, Direct TV offers access to hundreds of channels, bringing a plethora of programming into private homes, apartments, condominiums, commercial properties, airports, bars, and restaurants, as well as numerous other locations.
Next, Direct TV offers free satellite dish installation and prices that are often significantly lower than the cost of cable television. Direct TV is also known for excellent customer support. Customer support is available both online and via the telephone. Furthermore, Direct TV is the right choice if you want crystal clear reception, featuring digital quality audio and video.
Once you’ve decided that Direct TV is right for you, you may wonder how to get optimum enjoyment out of the service. You may have trouble choosing the right programming plan for your household. You may wonder if having a DVR system will really increase your viewing fun. Read on to learn how to get the most out of Direct TV.
First, put time and consideration into choosing the right Direct TV package for your household. Total Choice, Direct TV’s basic programming plan boasts a whopping 155 channels. With Total Choice, you get access to a multitude of great television including ABC Family, American Movie Classics (AMC), Black Entertainment Television, Animal Planet, Discovery Channel, ESPN, and more. Local television channels are included as well. Frankly, there are enough channels available to Total Choice subscribers to keep a whole family of viewers busy for a lifetime. Best of all, Total Choice is available for less than $30 per month. What a steal!
The next step up, Total Choice Plus, is Direct TV’s middle package. It features everything included with the Total Choice plan and packs on over 20 additional channels. For example, quality channels like Boomerang, DIY Network, SOAPnet, The Biography Channel, and Discovery Kids are included when you choose Total Choice Plus. The price is great, coming in at just $45.99 a month.
Want more Give Direct TV’s Total Choice Premier package a try. This plan is truly a smorgasbord of television programming, featuring everything included in the Total Choice Plus plan and tacking on a huge assortment of quality channels, including a number of premium cable channels. You get big name premium channels like HBO, Cinemax, and Starz, as well as several quality sports networks. In all, Total Choice Premier offers more than 250 amazing channels at just $93.99 per month. This is truly entertainment at its best.
After you’ve chosen you Direct TV plan, take advantage of the Direct TV DVR System offer. With this state-of-the-art system, you can avoid missing your favorite shows. How many times have you been stuck late at work, in traffic, or at the grocery store, lamenting the fact that you were missing your best programs Now, you can use this DVR system to record hours of programming, making it easy to view all your shows, even if you are not at home when they are broadcast.
Powered by TiVo, the Direct TV DVR System allows you to record several different episodes of a program, even when they are broadcast at different times and on differing days. Even better, you can choose to record more than one show at one time. Furthermore, you can fast-forward through recorded programs to avoid viewing all those very annoying commercials.
With Direct TV’s impressive combination of DVR and TiVo, you can actually pause the shows you are watching. This is true even if the show in question is live. Furthermore, you can play scenes back in slow motion. How’s that for entertainment
Using DVR powered by TiVo, you can record 70 hours of your favorite programs and enjoy them at your leisure. How much will all this cost you Absolutely nothing. Direct TV’s DVR System is free after rebate.
By now you are seeing the many benefits of Direct TV service. However, if you want to get even more out of your Direct TV service, consider selecting the Direct TV HD DVR System. Also powered by TiVo, this system features up to 200 hours of recording time (200 hours STD and 35 hours HD). This system, regularly priced at close to $700, is offered at just $399 after rebate. With DVR powered by Tivo, you can enjoy your very own, high-quality entertainment experience every day of the week.
Direct TV offers so much that choosing can be hard. The best advice for making your selections is to think hard on the shows and channels you like to watch. Also, consider the viewing habits of your family members. If you have children, who absolutely must see Nicktoons, be sure to choose a plan that includes that channel. If you love watching lots of television and simply must have access to the Sundance Channel, the Total Choice Premier package may be right for you. Likewise, if you don’t watch very much television, but want access to quality programming when you do, Total Choice may be the right plan. If you are a kind of middle-of-the-road TV viewer and like having plenty of choices, choosing Total Choice Plus may be just the thing to create a happy medium.
Getting the most out of Direct TV also includes saving the most money. Direct TV frequently offers money savings deals guaranteed to make you smile. For instance, you can get free satellite installations, free equipment, and even a free Direct TV HD System (after rebate). Always check online or by phone for great deals before ordering. Chances are you’ll find a money-saving special that makes Direct TV service even more attractive.
Last but not least, ask questions to get the most out of Direct TV. When you are new to Direct TV, you may have many questions. Don’t be afraid to ask them or raise any concerns you. Our Direct TV representatives are always more than willing to lend a helping hand and provide you with ways to get maximum enjoyment out of Direct TV. Direct TV is television gourmet-style. Give it a try!